Fri. Jun 24th, 2022
Start a Tilapia Farm

Biofloc Production Systems for Aquaculture is perfect for low water areas. They are cost effective, environmentally friendly intensive form of aquaculture. Highly efficient it favors good feed conversion ratio, density stocking effective waste management system. Most biofloc system are perfect for shrimp or tilapia production.


Bioflocs are aggregates of protozoans, bacteria, algae or organic matter from uneaten food. Others include zooplankton, nematodes with dry weight protein content from 25% to 50%. The system is designed to provide nutrition, waste management and good feed conversion.

Biofloc Production Systems

Advantages of Biofloc Production Systems

Advantages of biofloc system are water use efficiency, improved water quality and improved biosecurity. Others are reduced sensitivity of light fluctuations, good feed conversion ratio and increased land use efficiency.

  • Water use efficiency
  • Improved water quality
  • Improved biosecurity
  • Reduced sensitivity of light fluctuations
  • Good feed conversion
  • Increased land use efficiency

How to Start Biofloc Production

To start biofloc production for shrimp or tilapia you need a pond. Traditional pond systems without lining face challenges of heavy metal, mineral deposits and microbes. These conditions make them unviable because of soil influence on ponds perimeter.

The underlining process of biofloc system requires starting a lined pond from inception. The choice of pond depends on the aquatic farmer’s choice of material.

Conditions that Affect Biofloc Production Systems

There are certain conditions that affect biofloc system conditions include rainfall, PH level, alkalinity, soil, minerals, and heavy metals.

  • Rainfall
  • PH level
  • Sunlight
  • Alkalinity
  • Soil
  • Minerals
  • Heavy metals

Basic types of Biofloc Production Systems

There are many pond types suitable for biofloc system. It is important that soil has no influence in overwater perimeters indoor ponds or tanks to make them viable.

Other types of ponds to consider are raceway system, concrete pond, indoor tank, block ponds all lined. Indoor pond systems are perfect because of little influence of environmental conditions.

Conditions that affect the system include alkaline in rain and microbial conditions. A lined pond system constructed outdoors require a good covering from the elements. While large ponds require bottom drainage system to remove excess sludge or use of bio reactors.

Biofloc Ponds

  • Raceway system
  • Concrete pond
  • Indoor tank
  • Block ponds

Pre seeding

Pre-seeding water culture is done to accelerate and stabilize the pond system. Use commercial starter culture for probiotic microbes. There are both commercial and homemade recipes for quick production of probiotic. Effect of feed rate transmission from green water to brown water depends on pond system.


Once the indoor or lined concrete pond is setup next is the aeration. To prevent anaerobic areas that cause methane and ammonia release aeration is very important. Aeration easily maintains high oxygen levels and reduces soil setting.

Make sure to install paddlewheel aerators to produce 6mg oxygen per hectare every hour. Basic requirement aerators per hectare is 30 horsepower to 200 horsepower. It is important to create current in the pond to reduce solid particles settling in the system.

Suitable culture species and Stocking

Stocking density or species selection depends on best aquatic life for greater profit. Biofloc system will accommodate most species because of rich water quality and oxygen levels.

Select species like tilapia or shrimp that feed on biofloc or filter feeders for better productivity. Select species like groupers, jade perch, tilapia or shrimp.

Stock tilapia 250 fry per cubic meter, 200 shrimp post-larvae per square meter. Fish not suitable for the system are hybrid striped bass or channel catfish.

Dried shrimp production

Species in biofloc system

  1. Groupers
  2. Jade perch
  3. Tilapia
  4. Shrimp

Biofloc growth

There are many factors that affect biofloc growth. Things that affect biofloc growth are source of carbon, availability of nutrients, bacteria per cubic centimeter. Others are dependence on natural sunlight, water quality and good aeration system. 

it is mandatory to monitor and Biofloc development through regular water sampling. Monitor brown bacteria, byproducts and green algae. Others are water-quality perimeters, ammonia level dissolved oxygen. The famer should control water perimeter for better sustainability of the stock.

Things that Affect Biofloc Marine-life

  • Carbon
  • Nutrients
  • bacteria per cubic centimeter
  • natural sunlight
  • water quality 
  • brown bacteria
  • byproducts
  • green algae
  • ammonia level
  • dissolved oxygen

Monitor stock growth rate and Equipment

Invest in backup generator for off grid electrical solutions for aerator and water management. Other equipment are water pump, paddle aerator, pond system. Estimate the feed conversion ratio by regularly monitory the stock growth rate.

Marine and Brackish water fish farming


Never reuse the culture water after harvesting the stock. Best practice is to clean the pond or raceway sytem before introduction of new stock. The stocking rate and pond size will determine the amount of marine –life harvested.

By Femi

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