No two catfish feed composition are the same especially when sourced from different countries. It is important knowing the feed ingredients in commercial catfish feeds.
They have things in common like animal protein, crude protein, protein supplements and energy supplements. Catfish feed are deliberately made for rapid growth gain efficiency and high FCR.
There are many feed ingredients that go into feed production some of which shall be highlighted below.
Fish meal-Commercial feed producers use fish meal in their composition because it has fatty acid, phosphorous and digestible energy.
Catfish offal meal– some manufacturers use catfish offal meal which is process catfish and good source of phosphorous and calcium.
Soybean meal– Soybean meal is a major ingredient used in catfish feed. The bean meal is a highly nutritious meal loaded with vegetable protein.
Meat and bone meal– catfish feed manufacturers add about 15 percent of this meal in their feed composition. The meal adds lots of calcium, ash and phosphorous in the feed.
Poultry byproducts– poultry byproducts are not commonly used in catfish feed. But if its readily available manufacturers might include it in the mix.
Canola meal– fish love the taste of canola meal in the feed which encourages binge eating. Canola meal is made from a special rapeseed low in lysine.
Blood meal– Blood meal contains lysine and is only effective when combined with meat meal.
Peanut meal-has little lysine and used in minuscule quantities in fish feeds.
Cotton seed meal– cotton seed meal is used sparingly in catfish feed it contains 90 percent dry matter, 48 percent crude protein and3.2 lysine.
Rice bran– rice bran is also included in fish feed because it has high fat and fiber.
Wheat meddling– wheat meddling improves pellet binding and constitutes about 30 percent of the feeds composition. It also has high nutritional value and is preferable to corn and wheat grain.
Corn gluten feed-corn gluten feed is a very important constituent of catfish feed. The ingredient makes up a whooping 50 percent of the entire composition. It has 88 percent dry matter, 20 percent crude protein and 20 percent crude fat
Wheat grain– wheat grain only constitutes a lowly 3 percent of cat fish feed composition.
Distiller’s grain– distiller’s grain takes up 35 percent of feed composition. Distiller grains are residuals of fermented cereal grains and are highly priced by feed manufacturers because of their ready availability.
The major components of all the listed ingredients include dry matter, crude protein, and crude fat. Other things you find in theses feed ingredients are lysine and crude fiber.
List of feed ingredients
1 Cotton seed meal
2 Peanut meal
3 Canola meal
4 Meat and bone meal
5 Catfish offal meal
6 Soybean meal
7 Blood meal
8 Poultry byproducts
9 Wheat grain
10 Corn gluten feed
11 Rice bran
12 Cotton seed meal
13 Distillers grains
Composition and formulation of commercial catfish feed
Most producers of catfish feed use similar composition to produce their highly digestible and nutritious feed. The composition of catfish feed have same basic elements in them.
The feed has crude protein, crude fiber, lipid, phosphorous, and digestible energy. It also consists of whole fish meal, premixed vitamins, trace minerals, cotton seed meal grain byproducts and lysine.
Catfish has loads of protein and energy supplements for fast growth in commercial fish farming. Protein supplements in fish feed are either animal or plant based protein.
The protein is obtained from different sources like catfish offal meal, poultry byproduct, meat and bone meal. Other sources are inedible organ tissues and milk products including fish meal.
Fry need lots of protein in their diet and animal protein provides the recommended amount. Plant protein is extracted from peanut meal, cotton seed meal and soybean meal.
Energy supplements account for 21 percent of the formula that goes into feed production. Energy supplements are obtained from vegetable oil, animal fat, and grains.
Some energy sources are wheat grain, corn, wheat middling, animal fat, and fish oil. Commercial feed producers have a minimum requirement for their feed formula.
They also use a least cost approach for maximum gain when combining ingredients. The choice of manufacturing method of catfish feed is via extrusion method.
The catfish feed should provide lots of nutrients and aid the fish gain rapid growth. It should have protein, mineral pre mixes, vitamins and energy.
Feed formulation used to culture catfish
The feed formulation is very important if they fish is going to benefit and grow. Different companies have varied formulas that go into feed formulation.
They might be slightly different in composition but they follow basic rules and guidelines. Listed here is a basic feed formulation acceptable when composing high value catfish feed.
The composition of the feed depends on the development stage of the catfish. Younger fish like fry or fingerlings as a rule has more protein in their diet so producers take this into consideration.
Feed formulation for fry
Fry are catfish that are newly hatched and very tiny in size. They need proper aerated ponds and protein rich feed concentrates to grow feed producers have special formulas for fry
Fry feed is loaded with wheat middling’s of about 20 percent a high catfish vitamin mix including 5.0 percent fat and oil. Other ingredients are menhaden meal of about 74 percent, including catfish mineral mix.
Fry feed has about 50 percent protein in the composition, with no soybean meal or cotton seed meal.
Feed formulation for fingerlings
Fingerlings have a different feed composition which includes 44.2 percent soybean meal, 10 percent cotton seed meal and 8 percent menhaden meal. Other ingredients in its composition are 27.6 percent corn grain, 7.5 percent wheat middling and 0.5 percent di-calcium phosphate.
The producers add 2.0 percent fat and oil including catfish mineral and vitamin mix.
Feed formula for Young adult and adult catfish
The composition is slightly different from fingerlings feed with notable reduction in protein. Feed producers use less soybean meal of about 30 to 28 percent, same amount of cotton seed meal as in fingerlings formula 10 percent.
They use higher corn grain of ingredient of between 31.9 to 35.3 percent 20 percent, fat/oil 1.5 percent, wheat middling’s and mineral/vitamin mix.
Ingredient of feed formulation used for catfish feed
2 Cotton seed meal
4 Wheat middling’s
5 Corn grain
6 Vitamin mix
7 Mineral mix
8 Fat and oil
9 Dicalcium phosphate
Restrictions on feed formulation
The least restrictions on commercial feed formulation include 28 percent protein in composition. Other ingredients that should be present in the composition are crude protein, crude fiber and lipids.
The feed should also have low levels of phosphorous, energy, lysine, methionine, grain byproducts,15 percent cotton seed meal,3 percent whole fish meal.
They can include 3 percent non fish animal protein, trace minerals and vitamins. The finished feed pellets are sprayed to reduce feed dust. Best quality feed for catfish are floaters to encourage faster feeding and less wastage
Feed ingredients used in commercial catfish feed
|Feed ingredient||Dry matter||Crude Fat||Crude protein||Lysine||Crude fiber||Met/Cys|
|Cotton seed meal||94||2.1||41||1.76||11.3||1.1|
|Catfish offal meal||90||11||58||4.19||0||1.9|
|Meat and Bone meal||92.6||8.5||50||2.6||2.8||1.0|
|Yellow Corn grain||88||3.5||8.9||0.22||2.9||0.3|