How to Formulate Commercial Poultry Feed

Poultry feed making is a highly profitable business venture. The food is essential for meat, egg production including the fast growth of the birds. There are things to consider before launching the enterprise.

You need equipment, factory location and source of raw materials. Other considerations are funding, labor and marketing the product. Knowledge of the ingredients, milling process, transportation and packaging is important.

To start first write a comprehensive business plan then carry out a feasibility study. Learn what your competitors are doing and focus o your customer demography. You need to carry out research, go for training and find appropriate land, equipment and funding.

Ingredient in Poultry Feed

Although the ingredient measurements differ per manufacturers the components are basically the same. The two major components are to provide energy and adequate protein. Nutritional requirements include fats, oils, protein and energy.

Energy is gotten from different types of cereal oils or fats. The protein sources are cereal by-products, different meal. The main protein sources are fish meal, field peas and cereal by- products. Others are bone meal, meat meal and canola.

The peas are harvest from temperate regions and available in different countries. Waste peas are the usual order however specific ones are grown to cater to the milling industry. Fish meal is derived from salmon, herring, Pollack, menhaden, tuna.

The extract from canola seed is the canola meal used in the feed milling process. Others are bone meal, meat meal or soybeans. Most producers use large quantities of soybeans in the mix.

Cereal meal is a derivative of wet and dry milling including industry waste. Top cereal by-products are gluten feed, middling, bran and grain hulls. Others are grain screenings, rice polishing, mill run, corn, hominy feed. More include wheat shorts, wheat red, barely malt sprouts.

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Fats and Oil

Lipids are used in the manufacture process of feed. The fats and oil provide energy to the birds. Te lipids contain essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and linoleic acid. The fast could be harvested from vegetable or animal sources. Vegetable sources are cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, sunflower oil rapeseed oil. Animal sources are fish, lard tallow.

Poultry Feed Mill Ingredients

  • fish meal
  • field peas
  • cereal by- products
  • bone meal
  • meat meal
  • canola
  • canola meal
  • soybeans
  • gluten feed
  • middling
  • bran
  • grain hulls
  • grain screenings
  • rice polishing
  • mill run
  • corn
  • hominy feed
  • wheat shorts
  • wheat red
  • barely
  • malt sprouts

Equipment

To formulate feed you need specialized equipment. The machinery could operate a feed pellet line or basic feed pellet machinery.

The equipment you need is feed pellets packaging machine and pellet making machine. Others are feed pellet cooling machine, storage bins, fire protection, dust collector and control cabinet.

Feed Mill Equipment

  • feed pellet line
  • basic feed pellet machinery
  • feed pellets packaging machine
  • feed pellet cooling machine
  • storage bins
  • fire protection
  • dust collector
  • control cabinet

Feed Mill Operations

To make poultry feed it must go through sourcing the product, receiving the raw materials and mixing. It then goes through pelletizing, cooling, sifting and packaging. The product is then stored or shipped to customers.

Feed Making Process

The factory receives the raw material in bulk. The material should consist of premixes, feed ingredients and molasses. The delivery system could be by truck, ship or rail system. Other ingredients are grains, liquid ingredients and fat.

In a line production system it goes through a conveyor system. The feed hammer mill then grinds the grains before mixing the ingredients together. Batching involves following a strict formula based on the type of feed you want to producer.

The three basic types are starter feed, grower feed and finisher feed. There is also layers feed for egg producers. The feed ingredients are weighed or batch scaled quantitatively. The scaling and quality measuring is done either automatically or manually.

The feed formula determines the batch mixing time for each ingredient. This process is carried out by the feed mixing machine. Once the ingredients are well blended they go into the pelleting machine.

The pelleting mill feeder controls the rate of ingredient delivery.  The conditioner mixes steam and dry mixed material to make wet mash. Then it is sent to the pelleting chamber through gravity or pressure to convert into pellet shape and size.

The cooling machine receives the hot feed pellets by gravity then proceeds to the screening machine for scalping. The final product is weighed, packaged and sealed. Then it proceeds to the warehouse or storage facility before onward delivery.

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How Poultry feed is made

  • sourcing the raw materials
  • receiving the raw materials
  • grinding
  • batching
  • mixing
  • pelleting
  • cooling
  • sifting
  • packaging
  • warehousing

Broiler Finisher Feed Ingredients

Here is a list of broiler finisher feed ingredients to make 70kg bag. We have grower premix 10g, soya meal 3.4kg, lime 2kg, fish meal 3kg.

Others are wheat bran 10kg, wheat pollard 13.3kg, maize germ 16.7 kg and whole maize 10kg. More include zincbacitrach 5g, salt 5g, coccidiostat 5g, bone meal 40g. You have sunflower cake 4.7kg, cotton seed cake 6kg.

Broiler Finisher 70kg Bag

  • premix 10g
  • soya meal 3.4kg
  • lime 2kg
  • fish meal 3kg
  • wheat bran 10kg
  • wheat pollard 13.3kg
  • maize germ 16.7 kg
  • whole maize 10kg
  • zincbacitrach 5g
  • salt 5g
  • coccidiostat 5g
  • bone meal 40g
  • sunflower cake 4.7kg
  • cotton seed cake 6kg

Broiler Starter Feed

To make broiler starter feed for 1 to 4 weeks chicks you need lime 4kg, premix 70g. Others are whole maize 40kg, fishmeal 12kg, lysine 35g. More are threonine 35g, amino acids, soya bean meal 14kg.

Starter Feed for 1 to 4 weeks Chicks

  • lime 4kg
  • premix 70g
  • whole maize 40kg
  • fishmeal 12kg
  • lysine 35g
  • threonine 35g
  • amino acids
  • soya bean meal 14kg

Layer Mash

To make 70 kg layer mash for 18 weeks birds and older, you need fishmeal 8kg and whole maize 34kg. Other ingredients are soya 12kg, bran 10kg, premix 179g. More are toxin binder 50g, tryptophan 35g, threonine 70kg, lysine 70g.

Layer Feed for 18weeks/Older Birds

  • fishmeal 8kg
  • whole maize 34kg
  • soya 12kg
  • bran 10kg
  • premix 179g
  • toxin binder 50g
  • tryptophan 35g
  • threonine 70kg
  • lysine 70g

Ingredients for Grower Mash

The ingredient composition for grower mash for birds 4 weeks to 8 weeks are whole maize germ 17 kg, wheat pollard 13kg. You need fishmeal 3kg, bone meal 700g, lime 2.07kg, soya meal 3.4 kg.

More include sunflower cake 6kg, wheat bran 10kg. Popular additives are premix 18g, saly 14g, coccidiostat 1g, mycotoxin 7g and zinc bacitracitrach.

Grower Feed for 4 to 8 Weeks Chicken

  • whole maize germ 17 kg
  • wheat pollard 13kg
  • fishmeal 3kg
  • bone meal 700g
  • lime 2.07kg
  • soya meal 3.4 kg
  • sunflower cake 6kg
  • wheat bran

Additives

  • premix 18g
  • salt 14g
  • coccidiostat 1g
  • mycotoxin 7g
  • zinc bacitracitrach

Ingredient for Layer Chicks

The ingredient composition for layer chicks 1 to 4 weeks are wheat bran 9.1kg, whole maize 31.5kg. Others are sunflower 8kg, fishmeal 1.5kg, salt 30g.

More include wheat pollard 7.0kg, lime 1.75kg, premix 20g. We have toxin binder 50g, coccidiostat 60g, enzymes 50g, threonine 70g, lysine 3g, tryptophan 70g.

Layer Mash for 1 to 4 Weeks Chicks

  • wheat bran 9.1kg
  • whole maize 31.5kg
  • sunflower 8kg
  • fishmeal 1.5kg
  • salt 30g
  • wheat pollard 7.0kg
  • lime 1.75kg
  • premix 20g
  • toxin binder 50g
  • coccidiostat 60g
  • enzymes 50g
  • threonine 70g
  • lysine 3g
  • tryptophan 70g

Maintenance of Poultry Feed Milling Equipment

The maintenance of the equipment is essential for productivity. Proper maintenance increases efficiency, product quality and reduces contamination.

The maintenance could be routine, emergency or preventive. You can schedule routine maintenance of equipment every three weeks. This should include scheduled inspection, taking stock of inventory.

Marketing

The demand is more than the supply in most countries. The market is readily available and easy to find. You can reach farmers through television adverts, radio and print.

Use flyers, posters, billboards and signboards. Use newspaper advertisement, word of mouth and discounts for large orders. You need a website, social media channels and directory submissions.

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