Start Turkey Farming in India: Domesticated in Europe and native to North America there are many breeds of turkey. List of the bird are Midget white turkey, black turkey, Bourbon Reds, Beltsville small white. Others are Broad Breasted White Turkey, White Holland turkey, Royal Palm, Standard Bronze and Narragansett Turkey.
Common Turkey Farmed
- Midget white turkey
- Black turkey
- Bourbon Reds
- Beltsville small white
- Broad Breasted White Turkey
- White Holland turkey
- Royal Palm
- Standard Bronze
- Narragansett Turkey
- Vanaraja chicken farming
How to Start Turkey Farming in India
Poults are kept in large pen housing with adequate heat, litter and water. Make sure they are feed regularly and pen secure from weather conditions or predators. Poults require proper veterinary care to avoid death of stock. Day old poults are vaccinated for NDV Lasota through oral therapy. Week 6 administration of vaccine for fowl pox via wing. Week 9 oral administration of NDV Lasota, week 12 oral for fowl cholera, week 12 oral for NDV Lasota.
Turkey farming is capital intensive and requires proper management, it takes 18 -25 kg to feed female/male to full maturity. This not taking into account utilities, stocking, labor and vaccinations. Other cost implications are transportation, rent and equipment.
A large/medium scale enterprise will cost serious money to operate. Approach an agriculture bank, trade or commercial bank for low interest long term loans. Other ways to raise funds are through sale of startup equity, partnership, venture capitalists.
Register the farm as a limited liability company, sole proprietorship or partnership. Find a good business name, insurance and tax identification number. Make sure the farm house is zoned for farming activities and not in residential area. There are also health and safety rules for livestock farmers on disease control and hygiene.
Labor requirements involves feeding and caring for the animals. The pen-house is cleaned every day, water troughs changed and food given daily.
Purchase poults from reputable sources with good customer history. It is easier to start with poults than hatch the eggs in an incubator. Select young birds common to the locality for better chance at survival.
It is important to know the different terminology in turkey production. Matured birds are referred to as Tom, very young birds Poult. Matured female turkey birds Hen.
Turkey has distinctive characteristics such as a large flap skin the dewlap or fleshy protuberance near base of neck the caruncles. The snood or dew bill is the flesh protuberance at base of beck, beard a tuft of hair in upper chest region.
Farming activities include de-toeing or clipping of toe, de-beaking reduction in beak length and de-snooding removal of snood or dewbill.
List of Turkey Diseases
There are a few common diseases that cause illness or even death of turkey. Common diseases are Blue comb disease, Arizonisis, Fowl Pox, Fowl cholera.
Others are Erysipelas, chronic respiratory disease, Newcastle disease, infectious sinusitis. More include haemorrageic virus enteritis, mycotoxicosis, turkey venereal disease, turkey coryza, paratyphoid and coccidiosis.
Causes of turkey disease
Causes of venereal disease is mycoplasma meleagris while coccidiosis is caused by coccidian spp. Paramyxo virus causes Newcastle disease, salmonella pullorun causes paratyphoid while bordettella is the culprit behind turkey coryza. Origin of other diseases are fungal, bacteria, viruses, pox virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum even corona virus.
The cause or type of disease offers different symptoms. Chronic respiratory disease symptoms is gurgling, nasal exudates, sneezing and coughing. Fowl cholera symptoms are yellow droppings purplish head, greenish droppings or death. Fowl pox offers wattles, scab formation, small yellow blisters on comb. If the bird has blue comb disease signs are watery droppings darkened skin or head, acute weight loss.
|Chronic Respiratory Disease||Sneezing, Nasal exudates, coughing||Mycoplasma gallisepticum||Mycoplasma free birds|
|Fowl Pox||Scab, Blisters on comb, wattles||Pox Virus||Vaccination|
|Infectious Sinusitis||Coughing, Nasal discharge, Swollen sinuses||Bacteria||Separate poults from breeders|
|Turkey coryza||Excessive Nasal mucus,||Bordetella avium||Vaccination|
|Blue Comb Disease||Weight loss, darker skin/head, watery droppings||Corona Virus||Decontamination and depopulation|
|Mycotoxixosis||Fatty kidney and liver, Haemorrahages||Fungal||Spoilt Feed|
|Newcastle Disease||Paralysis, twistwed neck, wheezing, soft eggs||Paramyxo Virus||Vaccination|
Vaccination Schedule for Turkey
A farmer needs to schedule vaccination for healthier birds in turkey production. Register with a qualified vet to administer the drugs. Common diseases that affect stock are NDV Lasota, Fowl Cholera and Fowl Pox. Means of administration of vaccine is via oral administration, wing web or spraying.
Turkey Vaccination Schedule
|Age of Turkey||Administration||Type of Vaccine|
|Day 1||Oral or Spray||NDV Lasota|
|Week 6||Wing||Fowl Pox|
|Week 9||Oral||NDV Lasota|
|Week 12||Oral||Fowl Cholera|
|Week 15||Oral||NDV Lasota|
Fertile Turkey Eggs Incubation
There are two ways to hatch turkey from egg. They are through natural incubation or artificial incubation. Natural incubation is when the farmer allows the bird brood on eggs naturally.
The bird can manage only 10 -14 eggs at a time. The success rate is about 75% and depends on the efficacy of the female turkey. However artificial incubation has a success rate of 89% with higher hatchery rate and hundreds of fertile eggs. To succeed with artificial incubation hatchery temperature is 99.5F and 90% humidity.
Make provisions to feed the birds food high in protein. Turkey feed is formulated from an assortment of ingredients. Feed ingredients are palm kernel cake, bone meal and groundnut cake. Others are maize, wheat offal’s, soy meal. We have limestone, methionine, lysine, salt, toxin binder, and premix.
Ingredient in turkey feed
- palm kernel cake
- bone meal
- groundnut cake
- wheat offal’s
- soy meal
- toxin binder
Average number of eggs annually per female is 80-100, incubation period 28 days and day old poult weigh 50gm. Average feed consumption to marketable age of male 25 kg, female 18kg mortality 3%.
Male turkeys are sold at 7.5 kg at 15 -20 weeks, female sold when the reach 5.5 kg at 18-20 weeks. Sell to wholesalers, retailers, meat markets, cold room, supermarkets, market women, grocery store, restaurants and hotels.