A not so common fish culture in some Asian countries is Coastal Aquaculture. The culture is practiced in marine/brackish water to produce local marine species. The overlap of species that grow in brackishwater or marine species depends on the tolerant level of water salinity. However some species are adaptable to both type of environment have shown good tolerance to low levels of salinity.
Marine and Brackish-water Fish Culture
Types of Aquaculture
There are three major types of aquaculture practiced around the world. We have marine culture, inland culture and brackishwater culture. Most popular type is inland culture segmented into different types of pond systems.
Aquatic species in Coastal Culture
There are many aquatic species produced in coastal culture. Common types are shrimps and many fish species. Common fish farmed in this system are rabbit-fish, mangrove snapper, grouper, sea bass, milkfish and finfish. Another culture of importance is the production of seaweed.
- mangrove snapper
- sea bass
Type of Feed
A major challenge is providing sufficient feed for the stock. Feed sources include commercially formulated feed, soy based fish feed, and fishmeal. Others feed sources are feed meal, home formulated feed.
- commercially formulated feed
- soy based fish feed
- feed meal
- home formulated feed
Difficulty in aquatic culture system are many. Primary challenge is prevention of stock loss and feeding. Others include dependence on wild seed stock, sluggish industry. More include low species density, expensive formulated feed, difficulty in obtaining fish meal, poor fresh fish biomass. There is also a possibility of predators decimating the stock.
- stock loss
- dependence on wild seed stock
- sluggish industry
- low species density
- expensive formulated feed
- difficulty in obtaining fish meal
- poor fresh fish biomass
Coastal fishponds are less effective than intensive system. They technique is non-sustainable in comparison to high population growth. There is possibility of failure, social disruption, conflict and destruction of mangroves ecosystem.
- less effective than intensive system
- non-sustainable in comparison to high population growth
- possibility of failure
- social disruption
- destruction of mangroves ecosystem
The major advantage is huge local and international market. A successful farmer will make huge profit from sale of stock. Farmers grow different marine species in coastal fishponds. Common marine are shrimps, milkfish, mullets, catfish and tilapia.