Although Jamun is indigenous to India it is regarded as a minor crop. It is evergreen, tall and ideal as a wind breaker or shaded plant.
It has man health benefits and a common name is black cherry. The fruit attracts good price and easily cultivated in tropics and subtropical regions. It is practical to farm in small scale with low to medium investment.
Health Benefits of Jamun
The blackberry has many health benefits. It is used to treat infections, cure kidney stones and good blood purifier. Others are used to control sugar in diabetic patients, reduce digestive disorders, encourages good skin and reduces prevalence of eye infection.
- Used to treat infections
- Cure kidney stones
- Good blood purifier
- Used to control sugar in diabetic patients
- Reduce digestive disorders
- Encourages good skin
- Reduces prevalence of eye infection.
Production States and Local Name in India
The most common variety is the Raja Jamun. It has no seed, is delicious, juicy and sweet. There sizes vary according to region and species. In India the fruit is known by many names.
Common ones are Jambu-Gujarati, Naval pazham-Malayalam and Neredupandu-Telugu. Others are Jam-Bengali area, Indian blackberry, Indian Plum. More include Jambhul-Marathi, Jamoon-Tamil.
- Naval pazham-Malayalam
- Jam-Bengali area
- Indian blackberry
- Indian Plum
The hardy plant can grow in subtropical and tropical regions. Avoid frosty area and they prefer well-drained, loamy soil. They can grow in sandy soil or salinized soil. The soil PH level ranges from 6.4 to 7.4.
The farmer can grow Jamun from vegetable or seed. Vegetable method is better with earlier fruiting and harvesting. It is possible to grow from fresh seeds and they germinate 2 weeks after sowing.
Space them 24cm x 14 cm early July. To grow use organic manure then plough the ground and clear leaves and stones. Dig 1x1x1 pits 10cm apart. This method is applicable to budded or seeded plant.
Use 24% manure, 76% top soil and add manure. 1 hectare can accommodate 150 plants and seedlings start bearing fruits in 9 years. Grafting and budding have faster results and fruits appear in 6 years.
Water the plant regularly to maintain moist soil conditions. Water mature plants once every two months or when soil is dry. Prune occasionally and remove competing plants like grass or shrubs.
Pests include caterpillars, white flies, birds and climbing mammals. They are susceptible to fungal infection, leaf spot, fruit rot.
The tree is capable of bear fruit throughout its entire life. The mature and produce fruit in 7 to 9 years. The fruits ripen in160 days after they emerge and should be fully ripened before harvesting.
The preferred method is shaking the branches or hand picking the fruits. Hand picking is labor intensive, less wasteful and best method.