Rajanigandha flower otherwise known as Mexican tuberose is cultivated in different soil types. It will grow in loamy, sandy, black soil with ph. level 6.5 – 7.5. Successful cultivation involves proper site selection, climatic conditions, irrigation and good drainage system.
Growth period is April to November in tropical and subtropical climate. Rajanigandha is grown for the beautiful tulip like flowers therefore adversely cold or warm climates affect the petal quality weight and farm yield. Other important factors in production are water management, weeding, including nutritional needs of the plant.
About Rajanigandha flower
Rajanigandha flower is a perennial herb cultivated for its aromatic fragrance. Known as “Queen of the Night” or “Night Fragrance” the tuberose is popular in Hindi mythology. Polianthes tuberosa in the family of Asparagaceae, sub-family- Agavoideae has pale green leaves. Characteristics include funnel shaped flowers, underground modified bulb stem, flower spike and flat seeds. The ornamental bulbous plant has economic value and high demand for the sweet pleasant fragrance.
Types of Rajanigandha flower in India
In India we have the variegated, double, single flowered and semi-double. Double are perfect vase ornaments while single flowered are considered more fragrant. The semi-double consists of 2-3 whorls of petal while the double comprises more than 3 whorls.
Common types of double in India are Culcutta Double, Swarn Rekha and Vaibhav. Others include Suvasini, Kalyani Double and Hyderabad double. Variegated refers to leaves with yellow on their margin. Two examples are Rajat variegated single with white margin and the other Dhawal variegated double with golden margin.
Single flowered have 5 petals on each flower, they are highly fragranced wit pleasant sweet smell. Popular types are Hyderabad single, Prajwal, Kalyani single, Rajat Rekha, Shringar and Banglore single.
Types of Rajanigandha
- Single flowered
Pests and Diseases
Common pests and diseases in tuberose are aphids, thrips, root knot nematodes and fungi. Spray Dimethoate for Thrips or Aphids, drench with Brassicol for fungal diseases.
Uses of Tuberose
Tuberose is used in religious ceremonies, perfume fragrance and ornaments. Other applications are use as essential oil, herbal medication, cosmetics, bouquets, artistic garlands, mouth wash.
- Religious ceremonies
- Perfume fragrance
- Ornamental flowers
- Essential oil
- Herbal medication
- artistic garlands
- mouth wash
Climate and Soil
Grow them in loamy/sandy soil at 6-7 ph. with rich organic matter and good drainage. In preparation plough the land fertilize and weed appropriately. Best for warm tropical climates perfect growth temperature is 20-30C.cropping method is through propagation and flowering is present after 40 days.
During the months of April to June select Bulbs at least 2cm, weighting 30gm for planting. This improves flower yield, increase spikes and encourage early flowering. Pre-planting storage of bulbs is 10 degrees Celsius for 30 days.
Bulbs with appropriate weight would flower earlier than lighter ones. 10gm bulbs will not flower, 15gm will flower after 50 days while bulbs 30gm will flower in 40 days. Break rest period by dipping bulb in 4% thiourea solution and treat with 0.1%Bavistin for 30 minutes.
Space them 15 cm apart at a depth of 6 cm for best results. Growth regulators includes application of GA3 70 ppm on 40, 55, 60 days after planting. Use Foliar sprayZnSO4 0.5% + FeSO4 0.2% + Boric acid 0.1% to improve farm yield. Other nutritional requirements are 3 doses nitrogen day 60, 90, organic manure FYM 25 t/ha. Fertilizer 100:50:50 kg NPK
Weed Management, Water and Harvesting
Immediately after planting Spray Atrazine @1.0-1.5 kg
/ha in 1000 liters of water to control weeds and irrigate before planting of bulb. Before flowering stage apply water every 10 days if the soil is dry to encourage sprouting.
Method of harvesting depends on the purpose the flower is harvested. The flower is harvested for two reasons garlands or vase decoration. Commercial estimated is put at 7000 kg flowers per 1ha, comes to 20 tons/ha bulbs, 10 tonnes/ha loose flowers in 3 year period.
Ratooning is when a previously planted bulb regains growth after a period of dormancy. Post-harvest activities include grading and sorting. Grading involves checking for bruise or disease free flowers, stem strength, flower spikes, stalk length and weight. Types of packaging includes bamboo baskets, cardboard boxes.