Importance of feed
Unconventional feed sources: Poultry feed accounts for major input in poultry production. The cost of feed is about 1/3rd of total cost of production. Therefore it is important for farmers to find alternative or supplementary feed. Commercial feed production utilizes common feed sources in the composition. Raw materials used in commercial feed production include fish meal, maize or soybean meal.
Unconventional feed sources
To aid farmers many research institutions are focused on developing unconventional feed sources. They focus on locally available raw material that are easily sourced and cheap with the aim of reduction in cost of feeding, chemical composition, feed value and production. This invariably increases production including profit margin of poultry farmers.
Types of unconventional feed sources
To qualify the feed source is locally available, cheap, and affordable that offers high nutritional value. Extensive research has been done in identifying raw materials for poultry feed production. Unconventional feed sources are cowpea leaves, palm oil and sunflower oilcake. Others include rice kani, brewers dried grain. We have poultry hatchery waste, cashew apple waste and unconventional cereals.
Types of unconventional poultry Feed Sources
- Cowpea leaves
- Palm oil
- Sunflower oilcake
- Rice kani
- Brewers dried grain
- Poultry hatchery waste
- Cashew apple waste
- Unconventional cereals.
Brewer’s wet/dried grain
Brewers dried grain has huge potential as feed ingredient because ii is abundance and easily available. The dried grains compose of rice, corn, barley malt by-products. The brewers grain come in wet /dry form and are water-soluble, contain vitamins and un-degraded protein.
- Barley malt by-products
Chemical composition of brewers dried grain
The chemical composition percent composition of brewers dried grain is crude fiber 9.55-20, dry matter 90.10-93. Others are crude protein 11-30, ash 3-11, calcium 0.28-0.60, and phosphorous 0.5-1
Cashew Apple Waste
Cashew apple waste is derived from the processing of fresh cashew to source sugar-rich juice. Over 12% dry matter from the production process accounts for the cashew apple waste.
How to use cashew apple waste
To use the waste dry in sun then grind before incorporating feed. Top producers of cashew apple are India, Brazil and Mozambique. Chemical composition of cashew apple waste is crude fibre8.5%, total ash 4% crude protein 7%.
More are acid insoluble ash 1%, ether extract 3-11% dry matter from fresh cashew 19%. Feed ingredient for growing chicken is cashew apple waste, wheat bran, maize, groundnut cake, L-L, DL, mineral/vitamin mix.
Rice kani is obtained during the milling process of paddy or rough rice. Bye products include bran, hull, broken rice and polishing. This provide good substitute for feed ingredients. Chemical composition is crude 1.5, total ash 3, ether extract 1.5, and dry matter 90.
Composition of rice kani
- Broken rice
Cowpea leaves and palm oil
Cowpea leaves are leafy vegetables good for fodder. The introduction significantly increase egg production for layer chickens. It also enables good feed conversion rate while reducing feeding cost. On the other hand palm oil is loaded with vitamins, energy. The tree is common to West Africa and used to make red palm oil for human consumption.
Sunflower oilcake and Poultry hatchery waste
Sunflower oilcake is residual cake from oil of sunflower seed. The oilcake has significant portions of fats lysine, cysteine, tryptophan and protein. Poultry hatchery waste composes of hatched eggs, dead chicks, dead embryos, culled chicks infertile eggs. The most common method to dispose of the waste is through burning. However to use the waste cook at 120ib for 30 minutes and dry in hot oven.
Different poultry diet and brewers dried grain
List of different poultry diet covers start diet, finisher. Poultry diet for different types of poultry bird are de-oiled rice bran, brewers dried grain and common salt. Others are mineral mixture, vitamin mixture, L-Lysine HCI. More include wheat bran, groundnut cake, soybean meal and fish meal.
Complete PDF on unconventional feed for poultry